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The autonomous community of Catalonia was established by the statute of autonomy of December 18, 1979.The government consists of a Generalitat (an executive council headed by a president) and a unicameral parliament.Agriculture accounts for only a tiny fraction of Catalonia’s domestic product, however.The autonomous community of Catalonia is the richest and most highly industrialized part of Spain.
The sector underwent rapid expansion and diversification since the 1950s, however, and metalworking, food-processing, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries had overtaken textiles in importance by the 21st century.
Catalonia monopolized trade in the western Mediterranean in the 13th and 14th centuries, and Catalan interests dominated the union with Aragon until 1410, when the male line of the counts of Barcelona became extinct.
Dissatisfaction in Catalonia with the new Trastámara dynasty of Aragon increased after 1412, and during the reign of , along with the decline of the Spanish monarchy’s prestige, led to the first of a series of Catalan separatist movements.
North of the Catalanides is a high tableland that comprises most of prevails throughout most of Catalonia, with hot, dry summers and mild, relatively rainy winters.
The towns of the Catalan coast have dominated the development of the region, with the result that the population is heavily concentrated along the Mediterranean, increasingly depopulating the hinterland.
A compromise was worked out with the central government, and in September 1932 the statute of autonomy for Catalonia became law.